One of the operators that you can use in SQLite is the
EXCEPT operator. In this article, we will explore what the
EXCEPT operator is, how it works, and when you might want to use it in your SQL queries.
EXCEPT operator is used to retrieve all the distinct rows from one query result that do not appear in the result of another query.
The syntax for using the
EXCEPT operator in SQLite is as follows:
SELECT column1, column2, ... FROM table1 EXCEPT SELECT column1, column2, ... FROM table2;
Let’s consider an example to understand how the
EXCEPT operator works. Suppose you have two tables – customers and orders. The customers table has columns customer_id, customer_name, and customer_email, while the orders table has columns order_id, customer_id, and order_date.
If you want to find all the customers who have not placed an order yet, you can use the
EXCEPT operator in the following way:
SELECT customer_id, customer_name FROM customers EXCEPT SELECT customer_id, customer_name FROM orders;
This query will return all the distinct customers from the customers table who have not placed an order yet.
It’s important to note that the
EXCEPT operator only works with queries that have the same number of columns and compatible data types. If the two queries have different numbers of columns or incompatible data types, SQLite will raise an error.
In summary, the
EXCEPT operator is a useful tool in SQL queries when you need to find all the distinct rows that appear in one query result but not in another. It’s a straightforward and efficient way to perform this type of comparison, but it’s important to make sure that the two queries are compatible before using the